Teacher Training and Professional Development

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Research Report for GeSCI Meta-Review of ICT in Education Phase 2

Research Report for GeSCI Meta-Review of ICT in Education Phase 2
This second phase of a comprehensive meta-review of educational ICT research and practice addresses global developments reflected in the research and development literature appearing since 2006. Completed in April 2009, the Phase One (P1) report comprised a synopsis of research related to GeSci’s five thematic inquiry priorities. This Phase Two (P2) narrative builds upon the P1 report and responds to several refined GeSci declarations of purpose and mission.

Research Report for GeSCI Meta-Review of ICT in Education Phase 1

Research Report for GeSCI Meta-Review of ICT in Education Phase 1
The purpose of this research is to provide a multi-disciplinary, multi-methodological lens for understanding the complexity and exponential growth of ICT around the world. The scope was limited to studies conducted between 2006 and 2008, and included articles from traditional peer-reviewed literature and “grey literature,” such as policy reports, conference papers, and reports from the popular media. Although the scope of the search was limited to five thematic streams outlined in GeSCI’s Terms of Reference, the comprehensive nature of those themes dictated a search methodology that was both focused and far-reaching.

Afghanistan Higher Education Project: The Impact of Education Technology

Afghanistan Higher Education Project: The Impact of Education Technology
The Global Learning Portal (GLP; www.glp.net) currently implements education technology activities for professional development to support the USAID Higher Education Project in Afghanistan. This research study examines the impact of the education technology program with specific attention to its effect on teacher behaviors and attitudes around technology in education. The findings indicate an overall positive attitude toward technology, due specifically to the efficiencies created by computer use and the opportunities for online collaboration. The research concludes with recommendations for the refinement of the GLP education technology program to provide more computer literacy training focused on improving research skills and suggests a direction for further research.

ICT Competency Standards for Teachers: Implementation Guidelines

Author: UNESCO Publisher: UNESCO, 2008. Abstract: The goal of this paper is to provide professional development partners with information needed to consider their participation in the UNESCO ICT-CST project and to revise or prepare their curriculum and course offering proposals. The paper presents the overall structure of the Standards by: 1) Identifying three complementary approaches that a policymaker can take to connect education reform and teacher professional development with a county’s economic and social development policies. 2) Listing six components of the ICT-CST framework. 3) Describing the contents and specifying the levels of the modules that correspond to the six components of each approach. 4) Detailing the objectives and suggested methods that a professional development provider may use to design learning materials that would support the goals of the UNESCO ICT-CST project. The paper also identifies and discusses issues that providers should consider as they develop or revise their materials. Subsequent materials will detail the mechanism by which professional development providers can submit their curriculum and learning materials for participation in the UNESCO ICT-CST programme.

ICT Competency Standards for Teachers: Competency Standards Modules

Author: UNESCO Publisher: UNESCO, 2008. Abstract: By crossing the three approaches to education reform based on human capacity development— technology literacy, knowledge deepening, and knowledge creation—with the six components of the educational system—policy, curriculum, pedagogy, ICT, organization, and teacher training—a curriculum framework is created for the UNESCO ICT Competency Standards for Teachers (ICT-CST) project. Each of the cells of the matrix constitutes a module in the framework. Within each of these modules, there are specific curricular goals and teacher skills. An overview of these modules is presented in this document and in the attached appendices. A draft description of detailed teacher competencies, objectives, and methods for each module is provided in a companion website, specifically designed for professional development providers and teacher educators. The intent is that providers and educators will review the curriculum framework and the competency standards with an eye to developing new learning materials or revising current materials so as to support one or more of the three approaches. In parallel, providers and educators can comment on the draft competencies, enabling the community to collectively shape the standards.

ICT Competency Standards for Teachers: Policy Framework

Author: UNESCO Publisher: UNESCO, 2008. Abstract: This paper explains the rationale, the structure, and the approach of the ICT Competency Standards for Teachers (ICT-CST) project. It explains how teacher professional development fits into the larger education reform context, as countries review their educational systems in relation to producing 21st century skills in support of social and economic development. It can be used as a guide by those concerned with education decision-making and teacher professional development in preparing their training curriculum and course offering proposals.

Former les enseignants à travailler dans des établissements et/ou des classes réputées difficiles

Former les enseignants à travailler dans des établissements et/ou des classes réputées difficiles
UNESCO, 1998. La présente brochure écrite par Jean-Louis Auduc porte sur la nécessité de mieux préparer les jeunes enseignants à travailler dans des classes ou des établissements réputés difficiles. Ceux-ci doivent être formés à faire face à des situations imprévisibles ; ils doivent apprendre aussi à se mettre à l’écoute de leurs élèves. Il faut, de plus, les mobiliser pour que, loin de décourager leurs élèves, ils s’efforcent de les mettre tous en situation de réussite. Il faut qu’ils sachent, enfin, travailler avec les autres partenaires de l’école.

Ghana - Teacher Development Professional Profile (EQUIP1)

Ghana - Teacher Development Professional Profile (EQUIP1)
The objectives of the teacher in-service professional development program of QUIPLS/ILP were to improve the overall quality of teaching and learning at the classroom level using an appreciative inquiry/assets strengthening approach in working with district education staff, school level staff, and community members. The project worked within the context of the Government of Ghana’s own educational reform program aimed at improving basic education and its initiative for creating a system of free, compulsory, universal basic education, referred to as fCUBE. The program helped teachers improve their instructional skills and practices, allowing teachers to have a more positive impact in their schools. In the program, teachers, head teachers, and circuit supervisors were able to try new methods and materials in a nurturing environment within their schools. The program focused on lesson-plan development and general planning; pupil-centered techniques; approaches for literacy, numeracy, and critical thinking; classroom supervision; and continuous assessment of pupil learning. The objectives of the program were identified through a collaborative process that included working with local stakeholders to improve the quality of teaching and learning in primary schools. One principle was the recognition of the value and the potential capability of every teacher and district-level staff member. Another principle was the recognition of the importance of a multi-level strategy in working with people at various levels in the educational system to support learning at each level. A third principle was that an ongoing program of inservice that reaches all teachers at the school level is an effective strategy for improving pupil learning. Finally, the project created a core group of district-based trainers who were supposed to gradually become responsible for the implementation of the in-service training at supported schools and extend that training to other schools in the district.

Pakistan - Teacher Professional Development Profile (EQUIP1)

Pakistan - Teacher Professional Development Profile (EQUIP1)
The goal of the Releasing Confidence and Creativity (RCC) project is to improve the quality of learning and teaching during the early primary years in select government schools and their surrounding communities in Pakistan. The RCC program described in this profile is divided in two phases. The first has a human capacity development emphasis while the second focuses on improving technical competencies for early childhood development. Activities have been carried out in 155 government schools in the provinces of Sindh and Balochistan, Pakistan. #RCC is a USAID-funded initiative designed to support the Ministry of Education in Pakistan in its efforts to formalize the pre-primary katchi class. When the National Plan of Action was issued in 2001, the Ministry of Education formally acknowledged the importance of early childhood education in helping Pakistan to reach Education for All goals. Shortly thereafter, the move to standardize the katchi class was given a tremendous boost by the launch of the national curriculum framework for this age group (three to five years). RCC was created as this launch was being orchestrated as a small-scale pilot in 100 schools that would test methods of teacher support and training to government schools for them to effectively integrate the new curriculum framework. The need for community teachers, who could assist the government teacher assigned to this class, was immediately prioritized by the three field-level Pakistani NGO partners involved in the project. As success and interest in the project grew, RCC has begun to focus on professional development and supporting teachers in higher grades to sustain the child-centered active learning methodologies first introduced in katchi class. This reach upward has been fed by teacher, community, school, and student demand for teacher professional development in the new techniques.

Ethiopia - Teacher Professional Development Profile (EQUIP1)

Ethiopia - Teacher Professional Development Profile (EQUIP1)
"The program described in this matrix is the school- and cluster-based teacher professional development program developed by regional states in Ethiopia with support of the USAID-funded BESO project. The main focus of this description is the program that was developed in Tigrai Regional State between 1995 and 2002. The objectives of the teacher professional development component of BESO were to support teacher capacity to teach effectively according to the new active-learning-based curriculum that was introduced in 1994, using appropriate new student-centered and problem-solving approaches. The program, based on provision of localized ongoing teacher professional development support, formed clusters of schools and a program of teacher learning that took place in the clusters. The program helped teachers improve their subject-matter knowledge based on the content of the new curriculum (including integrated content in grades 1-4) and the new teaching approaches that required teachers to engage students in the development of higher-order thinking skills as opposed to the rote memory learning of the old curriculum. Another important goal of the program was to help teachers develop more positive attitudes, more cooperative approaches to their work at the school level, and strengthen professional identity. As a result of the program teachers were to know a range of active learning classroom approaches in various subject areas. "

Toolkit for Assessing and Promoting Equity in the Classroom

Toolkit for Assessing and Promoting Equity in the Classroom
"Creative Associates International's Equity in the ClassroomSM (EIC) Project, funded by USAID, Economic Growth Agriculture and Trade/Women in Development (EGAT/WID) was implemented from January 1998 through 2002 in eight countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The instruments developed in this toolkit have been developed and adapted by a variety of people who have worked on the EIC Project over its four-year evolution and in the eight countries in which local Country Coordinators and consultants contributed to the design.The instruments and strategies presented in this document have been validated and applied in eight countries including Bangladesh, Benin, El Salvador, Haiti, Morocco, Peru, South Africa and Uganda."

Equity in the Classroom: Training-of-Trainers Design

Equity in the Classroom: Training-of-Trainers Design
USAID, BEPS, 2000. Through the Equity in the Classroom (EIC) Project, a Cooperative Agreement with the U.S. Agency for International Development, Office of Women in Development, Creative Associates International, Inc. (CAII) offers training and technical support to teacher trainers, curriculum developers, policymakers, and other education stakeholders to increase the retention and success of girls and boys in the primary classroom. The EIC workshops are built on a set of socially and culturally adapted "best practices" aimed at increasing classroom equity. One approach to the training that improves relevance and enhances the sustainability of the EIC initiative is the training of master facilitators via a Training-of-Trainers Workshop (TOTW). Through USAID's Basic Education and Policy Support (BEPS) Activity, USAID/Pretoria funded a TOTW in South Africa.

From Policy to Practice: The Teacher’s Role in Policy Implementation in Namibia

From Policy to Practice: The Teacher’s Role in Policy Implementation in Namibia
EQUIP2 Working Paper. Namibia’s Ministry of Education has implemented a strategy of decentralized, bottom-up teacher development. Teachers act as the conduits for new policy and reform implementation, rather than being acted upon by training programs. A teacher self-assessment system provides tools for teachers to reflect on their classroom practice and participate in their own professional development within a national reform framework. The experience in Namibia provides lessons that can be applied elsewhere for effective, decentralized teacher development.

Teaching

Teaching
This booklet is a synthesis of principles of effective teaching that have emerged from research in classrooms. It addresses generic aspects of curriculum, instruction and assessment, as well as classroom organization and management practices that support effective instruction. It focuses on learning outcomes but with recognition of the need for a supportive classroom climate and positive student attitudes towards schooling, teachers and classmates.

Making Classrooms Talk - Uganda Sustains its Teacher Improvement and Support System

Making Classrooms Talk - Uganda Sustains its Teacher Improvement and Support System
USAID, AED, 2001. Reform Accomplishments Supported by SUPER: USAID's contribution to Uganda's reform was named Support for Ugandan Primary Education Reform, or SUPER. The seven-year activity (1993-2000) comprised $91 million in the form of direct budgetary support to the government, which paid for such items as a teacher head count and increased teachers’ salaries, and $17 million of “projectized” assistance that supported the design and management of the Teacher Development and Management System. This aspect of the SUPER project was managed by a consortium headed by the Academy for Educational Development under the leadership of Chief of Party Dr. William Kromer. Teacher development staff based at Uganda's twenty-three core teacher training colleges provide intensive training and support for tutors assigned to coordinating center schools. Each tutor supports about twenty primary schools in the coordinating center school’s “catchment” area, conducting workshops at the center schools, paying regular visits to teachers and headmasters at their primary schools, and working with volunteer community mobilizers.

Teacher Education and Professional Development

Teacher Education and Professional Development
The iEARN Handbook is designed to help you to get started in the network and to illustrate a variety of ways to be involved in online project work through iEARN. In addition, it provides a “Toolkit” for designing an iEARN workshop, including sample workshop schedules, slides, recommended activities designed to stimulate interaction within the network, etc. iEARN-US also offers professional development workshops for teachers, counselors, and administrators seeking to enhance their work with young people through the integration of global telecommunications project work. Write to iearn@us.iearn.org or see http://www.iearn.org/professional/prof_form.html to schedule a workshop with iEARN trainers. And of course, the iEARN community is filled with a wealth of people resources. We strongly encourage you to take advantage of the other participants in this wonderful community. Ask questions and share ideas either on the Teachers Forum at iearn.teachers or by email to the iEARN-US staff at support@us.iearn.org. And, remember that each student and teacher has a vital role and responsibility.

Training and Professional Development of Teachers and Other Facilitators for Effective Use of ICT in Improving Teaching and Learning

Training and Professional Development of Teachers and Other Facilitators for Effective Use of ICT in Improving Teaching and Learning
Teachers are key forces in tapping ICT-facilitated learning opportunities and bridging the digital divide in education between and within countries in the Asia-Pacific region. New ICTs have had a profound impact on the roles of teachers in an information-intensive society. However, many teachers lack the knowledge, skills and attitude to effectively use ICTs as tools in enhancing learning, integrating technology with pedagogy, and facilitating ICT-assisted interactive teaching-learning in the classroom. Asia-Pacific area beneficiaries of training teachers to create lesson plans utilizing ICT and to use educational software. - Teachers, school headmasters, education policy-makers, and other facilitators of ICT use in education in the countries of Afghanistan, China, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Kazakhastan, Laos PDR, Malaysia,Mongolia, Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam.

Teacher education through distance learning: technology, curriculum, costs, evaluation

Teacher education through distance learning: technology, curriculum, costs, evaluation
Distance and open learning has been identified by UNESCO as a way of increasing teacher numbers and capacity. This document synthesises case studies commissioned in order to find how best this form of learning might be used. Each of the ten case studies is presented separately and findings and recommendations for further research are synthesised. Case studies are for: Brazil, Burkina Faso, Chile, China, India, Mongolia, Nigeria, South Africa (two studies), United Kingdom. Conclusions are limited because of lack of data, but some of the findings are: distance education is being used in four different but sometimes overlapping areas of teacher education: initial professional education, continuing professional development, curriculum reform and change, and teachers’ career development. Major problems in curriculum reform and change have been informing teachers in time, involving them sufficiently in the change process and supporting them as they change their beliefs and practices either as individuals or groups. This is frequently neglected. solutions have often resulted in slow information flows, inadequate or scarce support materials and slow, expensive cascades of increasingly diluted information with insufficient support for applying new approaches and practices in teaching. Three cases here showed different approaches in the use of open and distance learning to support change. the main reasons identified for drop-out were fee-problems, heavy and sometimes inappropriate workload, operational failures or weak management in the distance education system and, very importantly, weak learner support systems. For teachers, tangible rewards at the end of programmes play a role too. Generally, experience and research shows that drop-out from distance education programmes tends to be higher than for traditional alternatives (though recent studies of conventional programmes at higher education level indicates that the gap is much less than previously thought and in some cases, is comparable).

ICT in Teacher Training resources

ICT in Teacher Training resources
This document features 108 commented web links to useful resources related to teacher training in information and communication technologies (ICT). It was issued by the Asia-Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID), which is coordinated by UNESCO. This document is published with other resources as part of of the "ICT in Teacher Training Forum", at:http://www.unescobkk.org/index.php?id=2976

Quality Teaching: Building a Flexible and Dynamic Approach

Quality Teaching: Building a Flexible and Dynamic Approach
This work summarizes the context and rationale for evolving approaches to teacher professional development, describes AED's early programs in this context, and outlines a basic framework of AED's flexible and dynamic approach to teacher training. Six case studies show how decentralized, school- and cluster-based teacher education has worked in Guatemala, Nicaragua, Uganda, Ghana, Namibia, and Ethiopia to strengthen teacher skills, morale, and professional commitment.

Challenging the assumptions about teacher education and training in Sub-Saharan Africa: a new role for open learning and ICT

Challenging the assumptions about teacher education and training in Sub-Saharan Africa: a new role for open learning and ICT
In this paper we want to make a number of interrelated arguments. First, that the nature and quality of teacher education and training is going to be a key element in expanding educational systems to achieve universal primary education (UPE). Second, we suggest, that the existing institutions of teacher education, mostly created - 1 - in the mid years of the last century, will be unable to meet the needs of the twenty-first. For us, therefore, it follows that new forms of school-based, supported, open learning programmes will be the only logistically feasible and economically sound means of educating the millions of unqualified and underqualified teachers within the primary sector. New programmes, we suggest, will need to exploit the potential of information and communication technologies. We believe that such technologies can offer training and support of a type and cost hitherto impossible to consider. We point, however, to a number of impediments to the development of innovative teacher training policy and practice, including the regulatory constraints that inhibit developments in many countries. Finally we argue for a radical reconsideration of the traditional divide between pre-service and in-service training. Teacher education, we propose, is a career-long process. Although the rhetoric of this assertion is, we observe, gaining widespread acceptance, the translation into practice lags some way behind.

Training teachers to work in schools considered difficult

Training teachers to work in schools considered difficult
This booklet written by Jean-Louis Auduc addresses the need to better prepare young teachers to work in classes or schools considered difficult. They need to be trained to face up to unpredictable situations and they need to learn how to listen to their pupils. Moreover, they have to take it upon themselves to create winning scenarios for the pupils, rather than discourage them. Finally, they need to know how to work with other actors in the school. As the author highlights, there are no miracle solutions or tested methods which can be applied in all contexts, in all situations and to all cultures. Many pedagogical innovations are being tried out but have not yet been evaluated. Rather than list these methods, this booklet addresses itself to decision-makers and managers of education in different countries to alert them of the dire need to consider this phenomena and to adapt teacher training programmes. It might also lead one to reflect on the ‘violence’ directed at young people by certain humiliating and rigid school practices which should be reconsidered.

Training of teachers/trainers in technical and vocational education

Training of teachers/trainers in technical and vocational education
Compiled by the Section for Technical and Vocational Education, UNESCO, Paris, this monograph includes the Final Report of the UNEVOC International Round Table on Training of Teachers/Trainers in Technical and Vocational Education held in Curitiba, Brazil from 7-10 April 1997 and selected discussion papers submitted by the participants of this event.

The Role of the university in initial teacher training: trends, current problems and strategies for improvement

The Role of the university in initial teacher training: trends, current problems and strategies for improvement
UNESCO, 1999 (IIEP Contributions no. 32). The aim of this paper is to take stock of university-based initial teacher education in a wide range of countries and to assess its overall potentials and drawbacks as a reform option. With this in mind, it is intended to identify the conditions and the particular contexts in which university-based initial teacher traingin (ITT) would appear to be a desirable reform option for the development of an education system. In order to illustrate options with regard to institutional settings, two recent innovations in ITT, one from the United Kingdom (UK) and the other from France, will be presented in the appendices. These examples demonstrate in particular that innovations in ITT settings are not only conditioned by pre-existing institutional arrangements, but also by the particular objectives pursued by educational reform.

Recruiting, Retaining, and Retraining Secondary School Teachers and Principals in Sub-Saharan Africa

Recruiting, Retaining, and Retraining Secondary School Teachers and Principals in Sub-Saharan Africa 8
This study used an extensive literature review and subsequent field studies in Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Madagascar, Tanzania, and Uganda to identify current trends, challenges, and opportunities in the recruitment, retention, and retraining of secondary teachers and principals in Sub-Saharan Africa. The study also suggests ways of attracting teachers to the profession, retaining teachers and principals in the profession, and providing support to strengthen teachers’ and principals’ effectiveness.

The Expansion of Secondary Education and the Need for Teachers: How big is the gap?

The Expansion of Secondary Education and the Need for Teachers: How big is the gap?
This paper uses existing demographic and education system data from 14 developing countries to quantify the future demand for teachers and to examine the capacity of the education systems to produce teachers. It discusses whether existing supply mechanisms and inefficiencies prevent these countries from expanding access to secondary education. The paper also examines how primary completion, transition to secondary, secondary completion, entry to post-secondary teacher training, and/or higher education combine to determine the pool of potential teachers at the secondary level. These data are then used to illustrate how conditions inherent in the traditional system create a bottleneck at critical points of entry, in particular showing how low completion and low transition rates constrain the generation of adequate teacher supply. The paper concludes with a discussion of the policy implications for teacher preparation and recommendations for addressing the teacher gap in a complementary manner.

Teacher training and multiculturalism: national studies

Teacher training and multiculturalism: national studies
UNESCO International Bureau of Education, 1995. UNESCO:IBE has launched a project intended to study and improve the training of teachers for multi- and intercultural education. The activities of this project began in 1993 as a follow-up to the Recommendation adopted by the forty-third session of the International Conference on Education. This book presents the outcomes concerning the initial training systems of teachers in eight countries at different levels of development in different regions of the world but who are faced with a common challenge to educate for cultural diversity. Both the conclusions of each particular study and the general outcomes demonstrate the complexity of the problems and the benefits of comparative analysis. Overcoming prejudices and stereotypes is not an easy task nor likely to be achieved in the short term. Mentalities change far more slowly than knowledge and, because of this, educational strategies need to be applied in the long term. This study also shows that it is necessary to improve the exchange of experiences as well as contacts between people and institutions who are confronted with the same problems in different contexts. The publication of the initial outcomes of this project is intended to enrich the quality of discussions between specialists and institutions who, in different parts of the world, are concerned by multicultural education as an instrument to promote understanding, respect and dialogue between cultures.

Teacher professional development: an international review of the literature

Teacher professional development: an international review of the literature
UNESCO-IIEP, 2003. This book is organized into six chapters. The first is an overview of the process of teachers' professional development, its definitions and significance. The second chapter presents information on the impact of teachers' professional development on education systems and students' learning, and reflects on the relation between teachers' professional development and effective school and education-system reforms. The third chapter is devoted to reflecting on the teaching profession: when and how it begins, and how it develops throughout a person's professional career. It discusses in some detail the process of pre-service education, and describes the traditional form of in-service education. This is followed by the fourth chapter which describes models of professional development in detail, and - whenever possible - illustrates each model with a description of experiences and initiatives that have used that particular model in a variety of countries and societies. The fifth chapter explores the factors that must be taken into account when designing and implementing models of professional development. Finally, the sixth chapter offers conclusions, policy implications and recommendations.

Supervision for teacher development: a proposal for Pakistan

Supervision for teacher development: a proposal for Pakistan
UNESCO-IIEP, 1998. This paper claims that the current practice of supervision in Pakistan is based on the bureaucratic view of teaching and argues that, as such, it does not contribute to the professional development of teachers. It begins with the characterization of the current teaching and supervisory practices to identify the need for change, then presents an alternative supervisory model consisting of three tiers: external supervision, inter-school supervision and in-school supervision. It calls for formal assessment of student and teacher learning, while broadening the concept of student outcomes and teachers’ roles. It refocuses supervision on schools and school clusters rather than on individual teachers. Finally, it contends that this model has the potential to shift the locus of control for professional development closer to schools, and thereby address some of the issues that plague teacher development in Pakistan.

Global perspectives on teacher learning: improving policy and practice

Author: John Schwille and Martial Dembele, in collaboration with Jane Schubert Publisher: UNESCO: International Institute for Educational Planning, 2007. Abstract: This booklet discusses different models of teacher preparation and professional development and provides, on the basis of literature and research evidence, some insights for planners, managers and decision-makers on how to evaluate existing programmes and design new ones. The authors present a conceptual framework which integrates different phases in the process of teacher learning: observation during the teachers' own schooling experience, pre-service preparation of teachers, induction and professional development. In most developing countries, phases 1 and 2 bear the most weight, but it is increasingly recognized that induction and continuous training and professional development are essential. The next chapters discuss the unresolved controversy of how much formal preparation is needed before starting to teach, the different models of initial teacher preparation, the induction phase, and last but not least, the continuing professional development of teachers, not to be confused with existing programmes of in-service training.

Reducing HIV,AIDS Vulnerability among students in the School Setting: A Teacher Training Manual

Reducing HIV,AIDS Vulnerability among students in the School Setting: A Teacher Training Manual
UNESCO Bangkok, 2005. This manual consists of eleven modules. In totality, it contains the basic facts and information needed for the acquisition of knowledge and development of attitudes, values, skills and practices (KAVSP) related to the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS. These modules emphasize knowledge, life skills and attitudes for HIV/AIDS/STIs prevention and care through perceptual understanding, deliberations, and exercises. The content and training procedures focus on providing knowledge and life skills, and shaping attitudes on HIV/AIDS/STIs.

Recruiting, Retaining, and Retraining Secondary School Teachers and Principals in Sub-Saharan Africa

Recruiting, Retaining, and Retraining Secondary School Teachers and Principals in Sub-Saharan Africa
AED, 2005. This study used an extensive literature review and subsequent field studies in Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Madagascar, Tanzania, and Uganda to identify current trends, challenges, and opportunities in the recruitment, retention, and retraining of secondary teachers and principals in Sub-Saharan Africa. The study also suggests ways of attracting teachers to the profession, retaining teachers and principals in the profession, and providing support to strengthen teachers’ and principals’ effectiveness. Insufficient data and information that differentiate lower and upper secondary education is a limitation of the study, especially in the context of the present growing interest in the lower or junior secondary level. There is a similar dearth of information in the literature on secondary principals and on gender issues as they relate to secondary teachers and principals. The findings of the study and the recommendations are intended to provide policymakers and other stakeholders with material for policy development and for the development of strategies for increasing the quality and effectiveness of secondary teachers and principals.

Preventing HIV, AIDS in schools

Preventing HIV, AIDS in schools
This booklet is aimed at providing teachers and other possible ‘HIV/AIDS educators’ with guidance on how to develop and implement an effective school-based programme for education on HIV/AIDS prevention. It focuses on different methods of teaching HIV/AIDS curricula within the classroom. The vast experience gained internationally over the last decade and a half in developing and teaching diverse programmes and curricula to educate schoolchildren on HIV/AIDS prevention has yielded a well-established set of essential considerations for effective school-based HIV/AIDS prevention curricula. They are the core concepts of this booklet.

Differentiated Instruction: Adjusting to the Needs of All Learners

Differentiated Instruction: Adjusting to the Needs of All Learners
Focus on the Basics (Vol 7, Issue C), World Education, March 2005. [Note: This article begins on page 13] How can classroom teachers maximize the learning potential of their adult basic education (ABE) students while, at the same time, attending to differences among them? Instead of expecting learners to adjust to the lessons they plan, teachers need to plan their lessons to adjust to the learners at hand. To do this effectively, teachers need to understand and know their learners, including their learners’ current skill levels, strengths and challenges, interests and preferences, and needs and goals. The challenge is for teachers to ensure that the needs of all learners are equally valued and equally served. Differentiated instruction is an approach that does just this. This article defines differentiated instruction; describes ways in which teachers can differentiate content, process, and product; suggests instructional strategies; and outlines challenges in implementing differentiated instruction.

Information and Communication Technology in Education: A Curriculum for Schools and Programme of Teacher Development

Information and Communication Technology in Education: A Curriculum for Schools and Programme of Teacher Development
UNESCO, 2002. The present publication, Information and Communication Technology in Education: A Curriculum for Schools and Programme of Teacher Development, is the last in a series of thematically complementary publications developed in 2002 by the Division of Higher Education and should be seen as UNESCO’s contribution to assist Member States in successfully integrating the new technologies such as multimedia, e-learning and distance education delivery into their educational systems. The book pursues two key purposes. The first is to specify a curriculum in ICT for secondary schools that is in line with current international trends. The second is to propose a programme of professional development for teachers necessary to implement the specified ICT curriculum successfully. In addition, it provides a practical and realistic approach to curriculum and teacher development that can be implemented quickly and cost effectively, according to available resources.

Effective educational practices

Effective educational practices
Walberh, Herbert J. and Susan J. Paik, 2000. This booklet on effective educational practices has been adapted for inclusion in the Educational Practices Series developed by the International Academy of Education and distributed by the International Bureau of Education and the Academy. As part of its mission, the Academy provides timely syntheses of research on educational topics of international importance. This booklet is the third in the series on educational practices that generally improve learning.

In-Service Teachers’ Knowledge of Significant Global Events/Issues

n this era of globalisation, it is imperative that teachers are adequately prepared to function effectively in a challenging global environment. The challenges of globalisation demands teachers who are competent, effective, and dynamic in their orientation. This paper presents a report of a study that examines the existing knowledge of in-service teachers in the University of Botswana, of some significant global issues/events. Five hundred in-service teachers were randomly selected from across 100-400 levels of study and across the three main teaching specializations: arts/humanities, sciences and social sciences. An instrument tagged ‘’Knowledge of Significant Global Events/Issues Test’’ with a reliability coefficient of 0.92 was used for data collection. Three research questions were addressed and data collected was analysed using mean scores, t-test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results indicates a generally poor knowledge of the global issues examined among the teachers, with a majority of them scoring below average (64.2% below 50).Also, course of study and level of study were found to significantly influence the in-service teachers’ knowledge of the global issues in question, while gender has no significant effect on the knowledge scores. The implications of the findings for teacher preparation programmes in Botswana and other developing countries were discussed with a major recommendation on curricular review to accommodate emerging issues in globalisation.

Adapting Learning Materials for Distance Learning

Author: C. R. Wright Publisher: Knowledge series Commonwealth of Learning,Vancouver, Canada, 2007 Abstract: This guide looks at issues of why and how to adapt courses for distance education, giving practical examples and sources of further information. It cautions that adapting courses for distance delivery requires the specific expertise of a course development team.

Project-Based Learning Around the World

Author: K. Weatherby Publisher: Learning & Leading with Technology 2007 Abstract: Project-based learning is being used in countries around the world with Microsoft Partners in Learning. Through Partners in Learning (http://www.microsoft.com/partnersinlearning), Microsoft has joined with ISTE (the International Society for Technology in Education) to deliver an interdisciplinary project-based learning course and accompanying teacher training gap across communities in terms of quality of life, competitiveness, and economic development. In response to this challenge, Microsoft launched the Partners in Learning initiative. We work with governments, ministries of education, and other key stakeholders in 101 countries to offer a spectrum of education resources—tools, programs, and practices—to empower students and teachers to realize their full potential. The fundamental premise of this vision is that technology in education can be a powerful catalyst to promote learning and that education changes lives, families, communities, and ultimately, nations. Empowering students and teachers is a pretty lofty goal, and the worldwide Partners in Learning team immediately recognized a few key points. 1. We needed to create resources (curriculum, teacher training, technical support, leadership support, and communities) to meet the wide variety of needs we were hearing from governments in 101 countries. 2. We needed these resources to be completely localizable so that each country could adapt them to the needs of its own local education system. 3. We needed help. Putting the “I” in ISTE As the name indicates, Partners in Learning is all about partners, so the author reached out immediately to ISTE to create a semester-length, interdisciplinary curriculum that integrated ICT skills into learning projects aimed at students in grades 6–12. This curriculum had two goals: to teach students basic ICT skills over the course of completing a learning project, and to train teachers how to integrate technology into the teaching of any subject area by creating and customizing learning projects. ISTE assembled a team of teachers and partners from all over the United States and worked for four months to create instructor, student, and training materials for 12 learning projects comprising approximately 40 hours of classroom use. The learning projects were divided equally between four themes: Space Exploration, Discovery and Change, Heroes and Leaders, and Our Environment. Once the curriculum was complete, it was sent out to the 101 participating countries for review. Each country had to determine whether this curriculum was appropriate for use in its educational system. For some countries, either the themes or the project-based learning format would not work. However, about 50 countries decided that they could use these materials.

Description and impact of a distance mathematics course for teachers

Author: G. Stolsa, A. Olivierb and D. Grayson Publisher: Pythagoras 2007 Abstract: This paper analyzes describes a distance course for training mathematics in South Africa. A focus of South Africa’s Further Education and Training (FET) curriculum is on helping learners develop problem-solving skills. Most teachers are not trained to teach problem-solving and did not experience the power of a problem-centred teaching approach themselves. To prepare teachers to help learners learn mathematics is not easy. Traditionally, the focus of teacher training programmes has been on the upgrading of content knowledge and on ways of explaining the new knowledge to learners. Teaching requires justifying, explaining, analysing errors, generalising, and defining. It requires knowing ideas and procedures in detail, and knowing them well enough to represent and explain them skilfully in more than one way. This course helps teachers deepen their content knowledge and their pedagogical content knowledge, improve their problem-solving skills, and develop their metacognitive skills so that they can continue to learn in future without relying on a structured course. Because of the strong correlation between teachers’ knowledge and learners’ knowledge, the course will eventually make a difference in the classroom.

The imperative of evidence-based instructional leadership

Author: K. J. Rowe Publisher: Centre for Strategic Education Seminar Series 2007 Abstract: Following brief introductory comments and rationale for the present paper, prevailing policy contexts, and an outline of on-going controversies surrounding effective teaching practice, this paper focuses on evidence-based teaching strategies that are demonstrably effective in maximising the achievement progress of students during the early and middle years of schooling. Drawing from meta-analytic syntheses of more than 500,000 studies, as well as key findings from a recent national research project, it is argued that since teachers are the most valuable resource available to schools, an investment in teacher professionalism is vital. It is further argued that such professionalism can only be achieved by ensuring that teachers are equipped with a repertoire of pedagogical skills that are effective in meeting the developmental and learning needs of ALL students. Such outcomes underscore the imperative of evidence-based instructional leadership that maximises both teacher and student learning outcomes as mutual partners in professional learning communities.

Barriers to Trade in Higher Education Services - Evidence from Asia-Pacific

Author: A. Raychaudhuri and P. De Publisher: Asia-Pacific Trade and Investment Review 2007 Abstract: During the last decade, the services sector has seen modest liberalization through the removal of trade and investment barriers. Most members of WTO are committed to multilateral liberalization of services trade. However, within the services sector, the liberalization of trade in education services has seen little progress. Using a panel regression, this study finds that wealthier economies attract more students and enrolment in higher education gives a positive signal to a prospective overseas student. However, the higher cost of living acts as a negative element in the movement of students for studying abroad. Nevertheless, according to this paper, country-specific barriers do exist and they are equally important in influencing the movement of students across borders. Such barriers, however, are not necessarily quantifiable. The demand for international education is forecast to increase from 1.8 million international students in 2000 to 7.2 million international students in 2025. A fascinating but very complex world of cross-border education is emerging and the last five years have been a hotbed of innovation and new developments in this area. The new developments in the last few years in education services, on one hand, provide enormous opportunities in services trade, and on the other hand, also generate several challenges.

Impact of ICTs on Open and Distance Learning in a Developing Country

Author: M. d. Pena-Bandalaria Publisher: International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning 2007 Abstract: The influence of the information and communication technologies (ICTs) in open and distance learning (ODL) in a developing country, the Philippines, is critically evaluated in this paper. Specifically, this paper examines how ICTs have influenced or shaped the development of ODL in this country. Also examined are the different stages or generations of distance education (DE) in the Philippines, which are characterized mainly by the dominant technology used for the delivery of instructional content and student support services. The different ICTs being used in ODL and their specific applications to the various facets of this mode of delivery are also described. Also included is an examination on how quality of education is ensured in a technology-driven system of teaching and learning, which includes, among others, the employment of the ‘quality circle approach’ in the development of courses and learning packages, and the provision of appropriate technologies to perform academic processes and achieve institutional goals. Experiences of the various universities in the Philippines are also cited in this paper. Lessons have been drawn from the ODL experience to guide educators from other developing countries.

Funding, ICT, Admin & Planning, and science teacher education in Nigeria

Author: N. P. Ololube Publisher: Asia-Pacific Forum on Science Learning and Teaching 2007 Abstract: The study investigates the relationships between funding, ICT, selection processes, administration and planning and the standard of science teacher education in Nigeria. It was suggested that both the academic and non-academic staff were disgruntled with the sluggish integration of the investigated variables in both state and federal owned institutions of higher education in general and teacher education programs in particular. The findings pointed to the fact that funding, ICT, administration and planning along with student teacher selection processes drastically affected the standard of teacher education.Results confirmed this hypothesis. Respondents were also not pleased with the administrative and planning processes, more especially the implementation and control stages. Likewise they were dissatisfied with the pre-service teachers’ selection processes. This finding reinforced previous research that investigated the standard of education and science teacher education in relation to the administration and planning processes and the integration of ICT in Nigerian education. The study also helps in providing descriptions and explanations regarding the impact of funding, ICT, administration and planning as well as the selection processes on the poor standard of teacher education. The study highlights the need to ensure that the Nigerian science teacher education programs are given a new lease on life thus making the teaching profession more challenging and inspiring many more intelligent and suitably qualified candidates to become part of the programs. Science teachers should be highly motivated to encourage candidates to opt for the teaching profession because it is not sufficient to raise pay slips alone.

Distance Education and the Right or Access to Education (online articles)

Author: Multiple authors Publisher: International Council on Distance Education,2008 Abstract: In 2007, six international scientific journals launched a common call for papers on the theme « distance education and the right - or access - to education », with the objective of collecting a common set of references on research from all over the world in the field of distance education and of its impact on access to education. The final texts selected by the journals (peer reviewed) are published on-line in their original languages (English, French, Spanish and Portuguese), as a testimony of worldwide practices and researches on the role of distance education and e-learning for accessing education. The 6 collaborating journals are: *Asian Journal of Distance Education *Distances et savoirs *EURODL *Journal of Asynchronous Learning Network *IRRODL *Open Praxis

Effective Use of Textbooks - A Neglected Aspect of Education in Pakistan

Author: R. F. Mohammad and R. Kumari Publisher: Journal of Education for International Development 2007 Abstract: Given the significant role that textbooks play in many countries of the developing world, the paper highlights issues related to the use of the textbook in rural Pakistan, and identifies ways to improve upon current practices. The findings presented in this paper emerge from our analysis of teachers’ experiences and practices related to the use of Science textbooks in public schools. Since the existing knowledge base is limited on teachers’ actual use of the textbook, the paper attempts to fill in this gap by highlighting the various issues related to teachers’ perceptions and practices. These include teachers’ limited use of textbooks, access to textbooks, information gaps and limitations of textbooks – all working to restrict the use of the textbook as a learning resource. The paper concludes by offering recommendations on improving textbook usage in Pakistan.

Successful Distance Education Programs in Sub-Saharan Africa

Author: J. Leary and Z. Berge Publisher: Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education 2007 Abstract: This paper explains the purposes, delivery methods, and program characteristics of successful distance education (DE) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This paper investigates the design and delivery systems of these programs and identifies ways the DE programs are working to improve. There are about 150 formidable distance education programs working in SSA. They aim to increase and improve a variety of existing programs, including primary and high school education, college-level and graduate programs, language training, teacher training, and continuing education for adults. The primary delivery system used by most institutions consists of printed manuals and texts that are distributed to all students. Despite the continued development of information and communication technology (ICT), including videos, online training modules, and web-based training (WBT) systems, traditional DE delivery methods continue to prove as the most reliable, most sustainable, and most widely used.

New Opportunities for Universities throughout Asia

Author: P. Kawachi Publisher: Asian Journal of Distance Education 2007 Abstract: This Focus Report introduces the new opportunities for universities and receiving visiting professors through a fairly new grass-roots organization called the International Professors Project (IPP) The IPP is largely email and web-based but face-to-face meetings do take place for committees. The aim of the IPP, is to utilize the manpower resources of developed countries to assist in developing countries through international exchange of on-campus professors or lecturers. It also serves both ways to bring professors from developing countries to other regions. As a result, it aims to foster a new concept of a mobile professor who can help all universities worldwide to become more internationalized. Open and distance universities throughout Asia should find these services useful and effective. A lecturer in Asia may find contacts abroad through the IPP and opportunities to travel to teach in other regions, and thereby develop professionally as a teacher. The hosting university could acquire human capital resources, and the host faculty could also develop through these increased face-to-face interactions.

The regulation of teacher education in South Africa

Author: J. Keevy Publisher: Preparing teachers for a changing context Institute of Education, University o f London, 3-6 May 2006., 2006 Abstract: Together with National Qualifications Frameworks (NQFs) in England, Ireland, Scotland, New Zealand and Australia, the South African NQF is part of a group of first generation NQFs that were established between the late 1980s and early 1990s. These NQFs were rooted in the thinking on competency, lifelong learning and outcomes-based education that prevailed in the United Kingdom at the time. In the subsequent period up to 2005, more than 30 additional countries have embarked on NQF development, while three regional qualification framework initiatives are also currently underway, one in the Southern African Development Community (SADC), another in the European Union (EU), and yet another amongst English-speaking Caribbean countries. This paper presents a critical reflection on the extent to which the development and implementation of the South African NQF has impacted on the regulation of teacher education. In particular it discusses the extent to which: • provisioning of teacher education has be en quality assured through NQF subsystems; • teacher qualifications and standards have been developed and realigned to NQF requirements to accommodate , amongst others, un- and under-qualified teachers; • professional development points for teachers are being introduced to complement the NQF credit system. The paper concludes with specific observations that may be of value to other countries that are using, or plan to use, NQFs to regulate and improve teacher education.

Monitoring Self-Development as a Teacher: Three Teacher Diary Studies

Author: D. M. Jeffrey Publisher: The Reading Matrix 2007 Abstract: Teacher diaries have wide-ranging applications for professional development, as they give teachers an increased sense of responsibility and seek new ways of improving their teaching. This article shares the author’s personal experience of undertaking three teacher diary studies at two-year intervals and reveals how his teaching methodologies and philosophies have changed over time.

Educational planning and management in a world with AIDS: training modules

Author: International Institute for Educational Planning Publisher: IIEP,Paris, 2006 Abstract: In partnership with the Mobile Task Team on the Impact of HIV/AIDS on Education (MTT), a series of training materials has been developed to: * increase access for a wide community of practitioners to information concerning HIV/AIDS and educational planning and management; * expand the capacity and skills of educational planners and managers to conceptualize and analyse the interaction between the epidemic and educational planning and management, as well as; * plan and develop strategies to mitigate its impact. By pooling together the unique expertise of both organizations, the series provides a comprehensive guide to developing effective responses to HIV and AIDS in the education sector. The extensive range of topics covered, from impact analysis to policy formulation, resource mobilisation and management structures, constitute an invaluable resource for all those interested in understanding the processes of managing and implementing strategies to combat HIV and AIDS. Accessible to all, the modules are designed to be used in various learning situations from independent study to face-to-face training. As such they can be used by individuals as well as training institutions in different courses and workshops. As the series develops, it will be complemented by additional modules to respond to the wide-ranging development of professional competence needed to manage HIV and AIDS in the education sector. Below is the list of modules currently available or forthcoming. Other modules are in preparation and will cover issues related to the workplace, tertiary education and responses at the school level.

Infusing technology in pre service teacher education programs in Portugal

Author: C. Coutinho Publisher: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference of the Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education, SITE 2007. AACE,Chesapeake, VA, 2007 Abstract: This paper presents an experience of internet integration in pre-service teacher education programs in Portugal. Participated in the study 26 student teachers, 14 from Natural Sciences (S) and 12 from Foreign Language classes (L). Future teachers were encouraged to set up and maintain a weblog for their future students over a period of ten weeks during the 2nd semester of 2005/2006 in Educational Technology course (ET). The post-course survey and informal observations confirmed that, though not having prior experience of web design, student teachers enjoyed the experience and that the learning of a new-based technology such as blogging was something they felt complemented and enriched their pre service education. Results also point out differences between science and language students that can serve as interesting cues for the design of teacher education curricula in Portugal according to the Bologna Reform.

Sex education: analysis of teachers conceptions from 12 countries

Author: D. Berger, S. Bernard, G. Carvalho, F. Munoz and P. Clément Publisher: WORLD CONGRESS COMPARATIVE EDUCATION SOCIETIESWCCES 2007 : proceedings” [CD-ROM] Universidade do Minho, Departamento de Ciências Integradas e Língua Materna,Minho, 2007 Abstract: School Sex Education is nowadays an important public health issue as it concerns not only youth AIDS prevention (and other sexually transmitted infections – STI) and adolescent pregnancy prevention but also interpersonal relationships and psychosocial issues. Therefore school sex education contributes to promote better citizenship. The European FP6 Biohead-Citizen research project aims to understand how biology, health and environmental education can contribute to improving citizenship. It analyses the social representations and practices of teachers in several countries, focusing on their differences and associating them to controlled parameters (e.g. social context, religion, gender). This communication analyses data concerning teachers’ and future teachers’ conceptions on the topic of sex education derived from a questionnaire that was constructed and tested during the first year of the project. The questionnaire was completed by 5189 teachers and future teachers from 12 countries. We used statistical multivariate analyses, a method that has become standard for investigating complex data derived from many individuals that needs to be analysed according to many variables (here we have used the responses to the questions as variables). The results show that the factors that correlate most closely with the teachers’ and future teachers’ conceptions are religion, the level of belief in God and the level of religious practices. It was also found that the level of teaching (primary versus secondary school) is also correlated with different conceptions on sex education. Detailed results are presented and discussed.

Bangladesh Education Sector Review Report 4: Teachers and Teacher Training (Formal and Nonformal)

USAID, 2002. The recruitment of teachers to government primary schools is centrally controlled. Although there is a fairly well established institutional framework for teacher training and support, these institutions seriously suffer professional deficiencies. The selection process, deployment as well as the teacher training system are deficient in many ways. Poor quality of the teaching is recognized as one of the key variables contributing to the low level of learning achievement in primary schools. The general lethargy and lack of initiative, lack of professionalism, poor deployment of trainers and teachers, lack of self initiatives and incentives for teachers to improve their professional status, lack of independence and control of activities, lack of facilities, poor quality of academic supervision, teachers giving preference to tutoring to earn more by neglecting the routine teaching, lack of linkages between and amongst higher learning institutes, etc have established an institutional culture that contributes to poor learning achievement in children.